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Supporting Evidence: New Research
Supporting Jaynes' Bicameral Mind Theory

Jaynes's Neurological Model: Neuroimaging of Auditory Hallucinations

Supporting Evidence > Jaynes's Neurological Model

In his theory, Julian Jaynes describes the role hallucinations played in an earlier mentality called the bicameral mind, prior to the development of subjective consciousness. Jaynes's neurological model for the bicameral mind predicts that auditory hallucinations would be generated by the language areas in the right temporal lobe and be "heard" or processed by the left. This prediction has been now been verified as accurate by numerous studies. Jaynes was not only correct about the neurology of auditory hallucinations, but decades ahead of his time. Below is a small sample of research supporting this aspect of Jaynes's theory (highlighted text calls attention to areas of the right hemisphere that Jaynes predicted would play a role in hallucinations).

Cerebral Activity Associated with Auditory Verbal Hallucinations: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Case Study
Bentaleb, L.A., M. Beauregard, P. Liddle, E. Stip. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 2002, 27 (2), 110.

Cerebral Glucography with Positron Tomography: Use In Normal Subjects and In Patients with Schizophrenia
Buchsbaum, M.S., D.H. Ingvar, R. Kessler, R.N. Waters, J. Cappelletti, D.P. van Kammen, A.C. King, et al. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1982, 39: 251-259.

Cerebral Lateralization is Delayed in Children who Later Develop Schizophrenia
Crow, T.J., D.J. Done, A. Sacker. Schizophrenia Research, 1996, Vol. 22 (3): 181185.

Time Course of Regional Brain Activity Accompanying Auditory Verbal Hallucinations in Schizophrenia
Hoffman, R.E., B. Pittman, R.T. Constable, Z. Bhagwagar and M. Hampson. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 2011, 198 (4): 277283.

Activation of Bilateral Auditory Cortex during Verbal Hallucinations in a Child with Schizophrenia
Jardri, R., D. Pins, C. Delmaire, J-L. Goeb1, and P. Thomas. Molecular Psychiatry, 2007, 12: 319.

Functional MRI of Verbal Self-Monitoring in Schizophrenia
Kumari, V., D. Fannon, D.H. ffytche, V. Raveendran, E. Antonova, et al. Schizophrenia Bulletin, Nov. 7 2008.

Spatial and Temporal Mapping of Neural Activity Associated with Auditory Hallucinations
Lennox B.R., S. Bert, G. Park, P.B. Jones, P.G. Morris. Lancet, 1999, Vol. 353: 644.

The Functional Anatomy of Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia
Lennox B.R., S.B. Park, I. Medley, P.G. Morris, P.B. Jones. Psychiatry Research, November 2000, 100 (1): 13-20.

The Brain's Voices: Comparing Nonclinical Auditory Hallucinations and Imagery
Linden, David E.J., Katy Thornton, Carissa N. Kuswanto, Stephen J. Johnston, Vincent van de Ven and Michael C. Jackson. Cerebral Cortex, 2010, 21 (2): 330-337.

Functional Anatomy of Auditory Verbal Imagery in Schizophrenic Patients With Auditory Hallucinations
Shergill , S.S., E. Bullmore, A. Simmons, R. Murray, and P. McGuire. American Journal of Psychiatry, October 2000, 157: 1691-1693.

Engagement of Brain Areas Implicated in Processing Inner Speech in People with Auditory Hallucinations
Shergill S.S., M.J. Brammer, R. Fukuda, S.C. Williams, R.M. Murray, P.K. McGuire. British Journal of Psychiatry, June 2003, 182: 525-31.

Temporal Course of Auditory Hallucinations
Shergill S.S., M.J. Brammer, E. Amaro, S.C. Williams, R.M. Murray, P.K. McGuire. British Journal of Psychiatry, December 2004, 185: 516-7.

Can fMRI-guidance Improve the Efficacy of rTMS Treatment for Auditory Verbal Hallucinations?
Sommer, I.E.C., C.W. Slotema, A.D. de Weijer, J. Blom, K. Daalman, S. Neggers, M. Somers, H. Hoek, A. Aleman, R. Kahn. Schizophrenia Research, 2007, 93 (1): 406-8.

Auditory Verbal Hallucinations Predominantely Activate the Right Inferior Frontal Area
Sommer, I.E.C., K.M.J. Diederen, J-D. Blom, A. Willems, L. Kushan, K. Slotema, M.P.M. Boks, K. Daalman, H.W. Hoek, S.F.W. Neggers, and R.S. Kahn. Brain, October 13 2008.

Language Production in the Non-Dominant Hemisphere as a Potential Source of Auditory Verbal Hallucinations
Sommer, Iris E. and Kelly M. Diederen. Brain, 2009, 132 (10): e124.

Auditory Hallucinations After Right Temporal Gyri Resection
Stewart, Bronagh and D.M. Brennan. Journal of Neuropsychiatry Clinical Neuroscience, May 2005, 17:243-245.

Language Lateralization in Unmedicated Patients during an Acute Episode of Schizophrenia: A Functional MRI Study
Weiss, E.M., A. Hofer, S. Golaszewski, C. Siedentopf, S. Felber, W.W. Fleischhacker. Psychiatry Research, 2006, 146:185-190.

Auditory Hallucinations and the Temporal Cortical Response to Speech in Schizophrenia: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study
Woodruff, P.W.R., I.C. Wright, E.T. Bullmore, M. Brammer, R.J. Howard, S.C.R. Williams, J. Shapleske, S. Rossell, A.S. David, P.K. McGuire, R.M. Murray. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1997, 154: 1676-1682.

Auditory Hallucinations in Acute Stroke
Yampl, Y., M. Lorberboym, R. Gilad, M. Boaz, M. Sadeh. Behavioural Neurology, 2005, 16, 4: 211216.